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Āmiorangi: te hunga Tamai orbital poi


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E kore e maha rawa maui nei i taea e rarā i hoki 1945 te he tau i korerotia ai - ka kite te reira i te mutunga o te pakanga ao tino nui kua te ao mohiotia ake; te roa rawa-rere US peresideni ake Franklin Delano Roosevelt (to tatou peresideni 32nd) haere ki mure ore, a ka muri e tona Vice te peresideni Harry S. Truman; i whakaarohia te United Nations, ka whakapumautia e Oketopa o taua tau ano, me te, te hopea, Arthur C. Clarke, Tuhia ma'imi, ahupūngao, kaihōpara raro, me te pūtaiao-fiction kaituhi, tika tohu te taeraa me te whakamahi matua o āmiorangi tangata-i hanga.

haere Karaka i meinga tetahi o te runga e toru kaituhi Science-Fiction o tona wā, me te hoki pai tohu te taeraa mai o waea pūtau me te GPS i 1956. I Tā ia mo ana mahi metarahi me te pūtaiao i roto i AD 2000, ka haere atu i roto i 2008. hanga e ia tona amiorangi matapae i roto i te moheni pūtaiao Ingarangi-fatuhia Ahokore World rite te pukapuka ki te ētita. Ka taea e koe te tango i te titiro ki taua mea ki tenei hono: lakdiva.org/clarke/1945ww/1945ww_feb_058.html.

fig04Clarke mau hanga pukapuka 2 e tau: kotahi i tonoa e ia ki te moheni me te nui atu āmiki pukapuka tuarua e kite etahi iti tohanga. Tuatahi, te amiorangi whanau ariā nui atu ahua ki te teihana wāhi. I mahara te reira ki te whai i te kaimahi onboard a e mahi hoki rite te mutu te tamaa mō ngā tākirirangi me te ona tono kōrero. tohu ia i te haerenga mai o āmiorangi i roto i pā ana ki 50 tau, engari tupu te reira nui tere atu i taua; Heoi, i reira ko kahore he kai mo tona whakamahi i roto i te āwhina waka ātea rite i te whakaaro ia. Ko te ariā o āmiorangi geo-pahoho (ranei Orbs e noho i roto i te wahi kotahi, me te whai i hurihanga o te whenua) i kore taketake ki Clarke; i hanga e ia ki runga ki te mahi o Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.

te Russian amiorangi tutuki Sputnik ohuraa i roto i te mutunga o 1957. 4 marama Just muri mai, i roto i te tīmatanga o 1958, ano i te US he amiorangi (Te Explorer ahau) i roto i te ohuraa. I roto i te 1959, whakarewahia te US Navy te rangi tuatahi amiorangi: Te Vanguard 2, kihai nei i i mahi i roto i tino rite te pai rite tūmanako engari i aru he iti i runga i te tau i muri mai i roto i 1960 e TIROS 1, i i te whakaaro ano rite tona mua; taua tau ano, te kōrero tuatahi amiorangi, Te Echo, i whakarewahia. Ko te Echo he hāngū amiorangi; ko reira noa te tahi mea ki te tāwhana tohu atu o. kite 1962 te whakarewatanga o te tuatahi e rua hohe kōrero āmiorangi: te Relay me te Telstar. I roto i 1964, te tuatahi geo-pahoho amiorangi, Te Syncom 3, i whakarewahia. I roto i nga tau tata nei, kua whakapaho te maha o āmiorangi i roto i te ohuraa i a tawhio noa 1000 ranei na. Ko e mana he torutoru rawa anake āmiorangi hōia mō te tino pikitia tata-ake o te whenua.

Ko te horihori nui rawa amiorangi (E mohio ana tatou o (cue waiata whakaari)) ko te International Space Station. E kore e tae atu i te 'puku' o nāianei o āmiorangisat3 whakarewahia tata, te maha o te āmiorangi i e kua tonoa ake kei runga e ono tekau-rima rau. Ko te āmiorangi o tenei ra whakakiia te momo o ngā momo me te mahi, pērā i: Intelligence / reconnaissance (Military / Kāwanatanga), Communication, a Earth Mātakinga (Commercial, pērā i hoki matapae huarere me te hanga mahere), engari mo te kitea wāhi, i reira ko te pera-ka karanga Killer āmiorangi (Military), e kua whakamahia mō te korero na roto i te whakangaro missiles hoariri, me te whakaeke i whakangaro taputapu mokowā-whanau taha e (ie atu āmiorangi). Na tawhiti, anake te United States, kua taea ki te whakangaro ngā taumata i roto i te wāhi China ko Russia. E whakamahia āmiorangi whakatere waka mō ngā GPS. E hanga Biosatellites ki te kawe rauemi ora ki wāhi (te tikanga tangata-kore) mo te rangahau.

whai āmiorangi he momo o āmiotanga whakamahia me, e kua whiriwhiria e hāngai ana i runga i to ratou whakaaro (e kino me te pirau orbital ranei). Āmiotanga i maha wāhanga; enei ko: Altitude, centric, Eccentricity, e hehema, tupurangi, Motuhake, ko Tukutahinga. Teitei Ko te orbited te tawhiti āmiorangi i te mata. āmiotanga whenua i 4 tiketike, mai i iti (ki runga, ki te 1240 maero), thru reo (ki runga, ki 22,236), ko Geosynchronous (22,236 maero ake rite), me te huarahi katoa ki runga ki te Āmionga High Earth (tua atu 22,236 maile engari tonu i roto i te whenua o mara tō). āmiorangi te tangata-i hanga i roto i te āmionga whenua tiketike kua nuinga outlasted ratou whai me e whakanohoia i tenei teitei ki te pupuri i ratou i o te ara o era atu āmiorangi; Kei te maha i huaina tenei momo o te āmionga te Tuku ranei Paraurehe Graveyard āmionga ranei (i ara o tohutoro, ko te nuinga o te marama 238,900 maile i runga i te whenua). A, no te he amiorangi Ko roto i te ohuraa geosynchronous, he huri noa 9800 waewae ia te rua ona tere orbital; i tenei teitei, e te reira te ra ahanoa 1 sidereal ki te āmio i to tatou paraneta (ko tika i raro i 4 meneti iti iho i te 24 haora i te ra sidereal toharite) e hāngai ana ki te tere hurihuri o te whenua.

03_Clarke_BeltKo te āmiotanga centric whakamahi tatou āmiorangi, pera tawhiti, he: Geocentric (a tawhio noa te whenua), Inikisisio (huri noa te ra), me Areocentric (huri noa Mars). Ko tino Eccentricity ahakoa kahore te ranei amiorangiHe porohita porotītaha ranei āmio o. E 4 āmiotanga whenua porotītaha paerewa: whakawhiti geosynchronous ohuraa, ohuraa whakawhiti mautū, molniya ohuraa, me Tundra ohuraa. He āmionga Tundra he tokonga ake o 63. āmiotanga 4 ° me te ao i roto i te ra sidereal; tino, noho te reira i roto i te kotahi wāhi pūmau (engari e kore e rite ki rite rite te āmionga mautū) i runga i te ao, me tona teitei rerekē rite ki te tauira o tona porotītaha. Ko te tokonga ake o te ohuraa ko te amiorangiwhawhai a i te āmionga weheruatanga ao parakore - kupu, Ko te rawa he āmionga neke tata 90 °. āmiotanga tupurangi hipokina e rave rahi tauira orbital uaua; tetahi o nga tauira māmā o te mea ohuraa retrograde, e te tikanga noa huri i te reira ki te aronga e te orbited te tinana tiretiera hurihanga; Kei te uaua whakamahia āmionga retrograde no e te reira atu wahie ki te whakatū i te āmionga on tonu. āmiotanga Motuhake He āmionga Sun-tukutahinga ko Moon ohuraa, he tino nui te mea tangi reira rite marama ohuraa. āmionga Sun-tukutahinga ko mea rawa he makimaki rerekē; i roto i tenei ahua o te ohuraa, te amiorangi haere i runga i nga wāhi taua i te wa solar taua ia ra; ki te hiahiatia, e taea te whakaturia āmionga taua e reira puta tonu i roto i te rā, i te mea tino hāngai o tokonga mārama, me tetahi atarangi reira tūtakitanga e i roto i tata te wāhi taua nga ra.

Ka rite ki faataa mua, āmiorangi i roto i te āmionga tukutahinga hanga tetahi revolution huri noa te tinana tiretiera e āmio ratou i roto i te ahunga e huri tinana i roto i tesat1 same amount of time it takes that body to rotate once; all the different varieties of synchronous orbits are variations or refinements of this. When a amiorangi ranei āmiotanga tinana fakasilesitialé te tinana tiretiera nui ki te tokonga atu atu 0 ° me te tirohia i te wāhi pūmau (te tikanga riro ki te hei i te mata o te whenua), te tauira o te nekehanga o taua amiorangi, Ki te tirohia i wā auau, puta ki te ahu mai i te tahi rerekētanga o te tauira ahua 8 parori ki i roto i te rangi; huaina tenei tauira ko te analemma. Ki te he tamau, me te tukutahinga ohuraa me hurihanga, e kore te āhua tangohia o tenei tauira ahua 8 tipua ka huri. He momo o ngā āhuatanga whakatau kōwhiringa raupapa tangohia o te tauira o taua he 'mutated' ahua waru tauira. He amiorangi with a circular orbital pattern at a 0° incline is said to have a Geostationary (aka “Clarke” – after the author) orbit. It appears to remain in the exact same place relative to the earth at all times at a height of 22,236 miles above the planet. It ka puta pahoho; Ko reira, i roto i te meka, whizzing thru te rangi i 9800 waewae ia te rua ki te mau tonu tona whanaunga wahi ki te whenua.

I muri i te poipoi tuatahi o āmiorangi, timata matou ki te hanga i atu matatini me āmiorangi utu, tāpiri i runga i atu me te ake pere me korowhio, atu pūoko, fancier huānga kōrero etc. hoki te wā roa, whai i te amiorangi i taea anake hoki etahi kāwanatanga me te maha iti rawa o corporations tino nui, e tika ana ki te utu me te mātanga hangarau e hiahiatia ana ki te mau tonu i te amiorangi i roto i te ohuraa. tangohia tēnei tauira kua he tahuri tuwhena o te mutunga o; kua puta te au hou. Ko te mea nui i roto i te āmiorangi inaianei he iti me te iti. Kua patua Na-ka karanga mitanano-āmiorangi te rangi; te "1- tākirirangi / 1-amiorangi"Ko kore tauira kei taka tetahi. E tonu te āmiorangi rerehua nui e tika ana - e kore e whiwhi ki ahau he; engari tenei ngaru muri o amiorangi hangarau tuku taea hou. Na, kia roto i te whakarewatanga kotahi whakarunga o toru tekau āmiorangi. Nā ki te haereraa i hangarau, e taea whai tokomaha o enei āmiorangi iti te taua aravihi i te Sputnik, ki te kahore hoki te iti, iti me te rorohiko nui, nui tere. Nā ki matea whakapaunga me te orbital, i taea e anake etahi wahi tīpako i runga i te whenua kia awe / kitea e te amiorangi i runga i te wā. Kei te tīmata inaianei tenei ki te huri i; ka whakatuwhera i te haerenga mai o āmiorangi iti, me te cheap he ngohi Hāuna o kōwhiringa hou i roto i kōrero, pāpāho, me te rangahau.


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